International Journal of Chemical Studies
Vol. 5, Issue 1 (2017)
Water footprint of rice from both production and consumption perspective assessment using remote sensing under subtropical India: A review
Author(s): RK Naresh, Jagdish Timsina, Ashish Dwivedi, Vineet Kumar, Vineet Singh, Arvind K Shukla, SP Singh and Raj K Gupta
Abstract: Consumptive water footprint (WF) reduction in irrigated crop production is essential given the increasing competition for freshwater. The calculated green, blue and grey water footprints of paddy rice are converted into estimations of the green, blue and grey water footprints of derived rice products on the basis of product and value fractions. International virtual water flows related to trade in rice products are estimated by multiplying trade volumes by their respective water footprints in the exporting countries. Reduction in overall consumptive WF always goes together with an increasing ratio of green to blue water footprint. We take both a production and a consumption perspective. Total water footprint of rice production is estimated by aggregating the water footprints per production region and the water footprint of rice consumption is estimated by looking in which regions of the world the rice that is consumed in that nation is produced. The water footprint of rice consumption in a nation is calculated by aggregating the water footprints in the regions where the rice consumed in a nation is grown by using a higher spatial resolution. In India water foot print of per unit and total rice production and percolation was 1403 (m3ton-1) and 432.9 (billion m3yr-1). The per-capita water footprint of rice consumption is quite high in Thailand (547 m3cap-1yr-1) compared to India (239 m3cap-1yr-1), with their water footprints related to rice consumption 63,364 and 250,305 (Mm3yr-1), respectively.
Globally, agriculture accounted for about 3,100 billion cubic meters (m3), or 71%, of water withdrawals in 2005. If there are no efficiency gains, this will increase to 4,500 billion m3 by 2030. (ii) Industrial withdrawals accounted for 16% of current global demand, growing by 91%, to take 22% of withdrawals in 2030. This growth will mainly come from the PRC, which alone will account for 40% of the additional industrial demand worldwide. (iii) Demand for domestic use will increase from some 600 billion to 840 billion m3 per year, representing a relative decrease by 2030 as a percentage of total water withdrawal, from 14% to 12%. pectively. The total footprint on India is the largest; a large fraction of it is made up of green water. Remote sensing has long been a useful tool in global applications, since it provides physically-based, worldwide, and consistent spatial information. This review paper discusses the potential of using these techniques in the research field of water management, particularly for ‘Water Footprint’ (WF) studies. In this paper evapo-transpiration, precipitation, water storage, runoff and land use are identified as key variables to potentially be estimated by remote sensing and used for WF assessment.
Pages: 343-350 | 918 Views 44 Downloads
How to cite this article:
RK Naresh, Jagdish Timsina, Ashish Dwivedi, Vineet Kumar, Vineet Singh, Arvind K Shukla, SP Singh, Raj K Gupta. Water footprint of rice from both production and consumption perspective assessment using remote sensing under subtropical India: A review. Int J Chem Stud 2017;5(1):343-350.